Source: ClassVR, 2019

Translation: Educe Vietnam


This document was written to explore current research on the use of virtual and augmented reality in learning. We have collated research from multiple sources, studies, and organisations, to demonstrate how and why virtual reality can be used in learning to enhance, and improve outcomes for learners in many different contexts.

Research on the use of virtual reality in learning  

The desire to learn is a basic human desire (Papert, 1994). Indeed, Papert suggests that by creating context and providing a situation for real-world learning, individual cognitive formation is easier. Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) offer a style of distance learning that is as close as possible to real-world sightseeing – with high-quality visual stimuli that allow access to concepts, places and experiences like never before. Virtual reality and augmented reality have implemented in the educational environment for many years. There is increasing empirical evidence that these tools support student learning outcomes and enhance learners' enjoyment in different contexts and between different audiences (Bower and associates, 2014). Markowitz and associates (2018) suggests that virtual experiences are underpinned by two concepts: immersion and presence. Immersion refers to how similar technology is to actions and movements in cyberspace. Meanwhile, presence is the psychological feeling of "being there" (Heeter, 1992; Slater and Wilbur, 1997).

Indeed, with virtual reality advancing rapidly and its applications expanding, Allcoat and von Mühlenen (2018) outline exactly why augmented learning with virtual reality and Augmented reality can become irreplaceable in the classroom. For example, they show that by presenting environments in 3D or by inserting sounds, images, and even As haptic feedback in a 360-degree world, students can benefit from learning in many ways. For example, students with an enhanced learning experience with virtual reality can engage in any given context visually, aurally, and subsequently emotionally and socially. In particular, this is clearly visible to learners when using virtual reality with concepts that are almost inaccessible. As Dragani (2019) explains, virtual reality technology can be a game changer for students who need to be trained in a field that is dangerous, impractical or impossible to simulate in real life. Furthermore, presenting learning materials in 3D can be especially beneficial for teaching subjects that require visualizing learning materials, for example in subjects such as chemistry and biology.

Furthermore, from Edgar Dale's pyramid of learning theory, we know that when students experience something - whether simulated or real - their ability to retain, reproduce, and apply this learning is significantly improved. Indeed, if learners are immersed in a context or situation or are provided with an augmented experience to retain and manipulate knowledge, Dale's theory would suggest that recall, application, and retelling Both their information creation can be reinforced and supported, which in turn leads to more easily developed thematic connections and with longer lasting results.


Woolfolk and associates (2008) states that learning occurs when experience causes a relatively permanent change in an individual's knowledge or behavior and numerous researchers support the notion that advanced learning with technology can can help students “learn and construct new knowledge” (Sutherland and associates, 2009). Furthermore, Huang and associates (2019) explains that virtual reality-based instruction can help improve student learning outcomes in different subjects and contexts, according to meta-analytical evidence compiled by Merchant and associates (2014) implementation. Virtual reality technology facilitates spatial presence, which is the subjective experience of being physically present in a virtual environment. When users allocate their attention to spatial information from the medium, they create a mental representation of the environment (Schubert, 2009) and thus create a more intense memory and may even last. In addition, once learners begin to view the virtual environment as a physical world, they begin to experience a sense of presence that is positively related to virtual reality instrument enjoyment (Kim, K. and associates.

Having a variety of learning tools available in a classroom is vitally important for maintaining student interest and actively engaging a diverse set of preferred learning styles in any given group. which student. As Allcoat and von Mühlenen (2018) suggest, virtual and augmented reality learning provide a diverse, interactive and explicit learning platform that appeals to different learning habits and interests. ClassVR's platform that can add, manage, and control diverse content provides teachers with a flexible system to be able to change what they display and how they interact with students with a single click. mouse. This content can be in the form of 360-degree images, 360-degree video, or interact with 3D models through the use of ARCube.


Proven virtual reality tools aren't just fancy new visual aids for education – they're powerful learning tools. Research shows that retention rates increase when students, students or interns use virtual reality to immerse themselves in a lesson or situation. In Dragani's (2019) investigation into why virtual learning works, she found that a University of Maryland study showed average accuracy rates with virtual reality glasses. individuals reach 90% compared to 78% when learning with a desktop computer. She also explains why in Beijing, students who learned with virtual reality scored an average of 93 on the final exam, a 20 percentage point increase compared to students who learned in the traditional classroom. .

The availability of a wide range of studies for analysis and evaluation is becoming more and more common; however, Markowitz and associates (2018) states that the link between virtual reality and education may be underdeveloped due to the challenges associated with using virtual technology to facilitate learning including: cost, usability and fear (or lack of basic skills) from employees. This is something really important to keep in mind, as ClassVR solves these three problems with the right cost, pre-made and preloaded content, a simple and ready-to-use interface, and staff training. Comprehensive membership and online professional development.

Markowitz and associates (2018) goes on to explore two comprehensive studies they have done; In both studies, there was a positive relationship between using virtual reality in learning and improving outcomes. Their first study shows that device use outside of school hours can help support sustained knowledge acquisition – in which students can recall information for weeks after the virtual reality experience.

In addition, Allcoat and Mühlenen (2018) also conducted tests to compare the impact of augmented learning through virtual reality, when compared with traditional learning methods, textbook learning and video. Figure one below shows the improved impact on outcomes from VR and clear progress in this sampled group of students. Students improved and scored better when learning with virtual reality; Self-reported confidence levels also showed the greatest improvement and the highest overall scores. This is perhaps partly because users get a fuller experience from those learning methods (Dragani, 2019).

Table 1. Number of participants (N), knowledge score (percent correct) and confidence ratings (1–5) before and after separate testing for the three learning conditions.


Furthermore, multiple sources (Scott, 2018; Allcoat and Mühlenen, 2018) show that virtual reality learning has been found to have a significant and positive impact on students' and learners' moods, while multiple methods Other learning facilities have been shown to either not generate interest or fail to retain learners – as shown in figure two below (Allcoat and Mühlenen, 2018).

Table 2. Number of participants who responded to qualitative feedback by groups: positive, negative and neutral responses.



The results we got from using ClassVR have been excellent. Teachers from around the world have shared their candid feedback with us and explained that in various subjects they have seen improved student understanding, greater focus and concentration. , regain enthusiasm for learning and better quality of feedback and interactions. The SAMR model below shows that, when students use 360-degree photos, videos and role-playing learning, they can transform their learning style and compare it to Bloom's cognitive scale, they can generate ideas. new ideas and concepts through learning experiences.


Another reason for improved results and increased progress could be due to the positive emotional response of many users to VR learning. Scott (2018) states that researchers found positive emotions to be more appreciated from the group that had the virtual reality learning experience than the textbook or video-based group. Students who learned through virtual reality also performed better than students who learned through video, showing that actively interacting with the virtual environment improved learning, as shown in figure 3 below ( Allcoat and Mühlenen, 2018).


Many of the schools that use our ClassVR see improved outcomes, such as increased endurance and the ability to answer open-ended questions (ClassVR, 2018, p.20), as well as current understanding. learners' experiences are more extensive, reflected in drawings created by students that recreate what they feel when they are immersed in virtual reality (ClassVR, 2018, p.25). Furthermore, their ability to create, edit, and then present their learning in a completely different and dynamic way (ClassVR, 2018, p. and p.26) provided a worthy foundation. more memorable and engaging for learning to take place. Through the document 30 Creative Ways to Use ClassVR, we saw teachers report that students had a better understanding of historical concepts, and were able to see context and lifestyle in many historical events. history takes place. Through the use of 3D models and augmented reality, the teacher also explained how students' understanding of various historical artifacts has improved significantly (ClassVR, 2018). , p.10 & p.16).

Other Contexts

Another learning context in which virtual reality has become an important fixture is the emergency services sector. By providing fully immersive, crisis situations to train rescuers, as well as using these resources as a tool to guide personnel through hard-to-reach places, Cakiroglu and Gokoglu ( 2019) suggests that using virtual reality for behavioral training has had a significant effect on improving skills in fire safety. Indeed, their research shows that, when conducting fire safety training with learners, most of them can apply their behavioral skills to a real-life environment. This study highlights the impact that augmented learning with virtual reality can have, and reinforces the learning theory pyramid about how much of an impact simulation of a real-life environment can have in aligning outcomes. in ways that other means cannot.

Augmented reality and 3D . concept

Yip et al (2018) conducted a study, which compared the learning experience between a group of students who did not use a controlled augmented reality and another group of students who learned with augmented reality. Their findings suggest that augmented reality can better convey fundamental knowledge, even for more complex problems. Part of that is because 3D concepts are made easier to understand to help process and capture when rendered via 3D media and when manipulated and investigated. For example, when using multiple 3D models with ClassVR, students can explore these models in detail using ARCube to strengthen the spatial connection between the model and their sights. In addition, students can view a variety of other models linked together by problem or topic, or can view discrete, specific, and distinct models – sometimes objects that are normally inaccessible in the classroom.

Allcoat and Mühlenen (2018) suggest that advanced learning with augmented reality will benefit students provided the user is familiar with the augmented reality device and understands how the interface and hardware work. . Indeed, it moves learners from the lower end of the Bloom (1956) cognitive scale to being able to 'generate' new ideas and make thematic connections more easily. Andrew (2019) explains that because augmented reality promotes high levels of visual attention in the brain (nearly twice as much as tasks not supported by augmented reality), the certainty of the “remembering” and “understanding” are significantly improved. With the knowledge established, learners can then engage in higher-order thinking skills with less cognitive challenge, as they can use their solid knowledge base to think critically. better argument.

Additionally, Andrew (2019) discusses how, in neurological terms, if any form of learning is to be effective, it needs to be encoded into long-term memory; otherwise it would have very little impact on any of our future behaviour. She says the research definitely shows that augmented reality experiences are significantly more engaging and memorable than experiences not powered by augmented reality, presenting a huge opportunity for brands to lead the way. take advantage of technology. This is where we, ClassVR, lead the way with curriculum-aligned content integration and enhanced interactivity through our ARC (augmented reality classroom) app. This app is installed into the device's firmware and allows students to move and manipulate these moving and immersive augmented reality experiences.

Social constructivism

To expand and develop children's ability to interact with technology from the surface level to the deeper level, it is necessary to integrate and plan throughout for purposeful and effective speech (Beauchamp, 2012). . This highlights the importance of social constructivism (Vygotsky, 1978) in computer science, which promotes deeper interaction, as children can evaluate and extend their knowledge (Hargreaves) et al., 2003) through targeted and topic-specific conversation. With VR learning, students will be engaged and excited by the medium of learning and when the time comes, they will be more likely to talk about the experience and different things they have heard, see and perceive. Therefore, learning through virtual reality can be an important tool in enabling social constructivism to be effective and widespread.

Summary / Conclusion

Allcoat and Mühlenen (2018) and Markowitz et al. (2018) agree that virtual and augmented reality learning in general appears to have the potential to enhance, support, and enrich traditional, learning textbooks, while improving student mood and engagement. These benefits can have a longer-lasting impact on learning, as seen through improved learning experiences and enhanced retention of knowledge, as well as the ability to analyze and apply new insights. through rich, high-quality experiences. Plus, Scott (2018) claims that personal VR glasses are the most stimulating form of learning, based on research at the University of Warwick. ClassVR hopes to help demonstrate this by providing augmented and virtual reality learning experiences that can be tailored to unique, specific and targeted learning areas. target. In addition, being able to control, manage, and direct student attention while immersed in the experience means that the ClassVR online portal can help teachers focus specifically on areas of responsiveness. meet students' needs.


List of references

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